# Serialization¶

HasProperties come with relatively naive JSON serialization built-in. To use this, simply call serialize() on a HasProperties instance.

However, built-in serialization is somewhat limited.

• Some property types are not JSON-serializable out of the box, for example, File. Other properties may have unwanted results when serializing to JSON (for example, Arrays will become a list).
• HasProperties instances are serialized as nested dictionaries, so self references will prevent serialization.

To overcome this a Property instance may have a serializer and/or deserializer registered. These are functions that take a Property value into and out of any arbitrary serialized state; this state could be anything from an alternative JSON form to a saved file to a web request.

## Validation vs. Serialization/Deserialization¶

For some Property types, validation and serialization/deserialization look very similar; they both convert between an invalid-but-understood value and a valid Property value. However, they remain separate because they serve different purposes:

Validation and coercion happen on input of Property values and on validate(). This is taking “human-accessible” user input and ensuring it is the “valid” type.

Serialization takes the valid HasProperties class and converts it to something that can be saved to a file. Deserialization is the reverse of that process, and should be used only on serialization’s output.

With simple properties like strings, validation and serialization almost identical. User input, valid value, and saveable-to-file value are all just the same string. However, the differences are apparent with more complicated properties like Array - in that case, user input may be a list or a numpy array, valid type is a numpy array, and serialized value may be a binary file or something. Validate needs to deal with the user input whereas deserialize needs to deal with the binary file.